Plus Valia is a tax imposed by the local Town Hall (Ayuntamiento) upon the sale of a property. Broadly speaking, it is a tax on the notional increase in value of the relevant plot of land. The formula used to calculate the tax is based on the Catastral value of the property, from which the annual IBI Property Council Tax is also calculated.
The calculation varies depending on the local borough, the type and size of the property and the number of years since it was last sold. In the tourist areas, the tax typically comes in between 1,500€ and €4,000, although we have seen examples above or below this.
NOTE: This tax is legally payable by the SELLER, not the buyer. Historically, many sellers have tried to fob the tax off onto the buyer (either through buyer ignorance, or through negotiating strength during previous sellers’ markets). Nowadays however, the seller is routinely expected to pay this tax.
The Notary will typically write into the property title deed (escritura) who is responsible for paying this tax. Sometimes a retention amount is taken by the buyer upon completion to pay the tax on behalf of the seller. This is more common with non-resident sellers, particularly those who have demonstrated a propensity for not paying other debts on the property! Even where the seller is clearly responsible, some cheeky Town Halls will quite happily send legal demands for unpaid Plus Valia to the new owner, hoping that there is more chance of getting the tax out of the new owner than from a non-resident seller who has probably packed up and left the country.
RECENT COURT CASES AND CHANGES TO PLUS VALIA IN 2017
On 11th May 2017 the Canarian Supreme Court issued a ruling following a legal challenge brought against a charge for Plus Valia where the value of the property in question had fallen between the previous date of purchase and the later date of sale. The Court ruled that since Plus Valia is a tax on an increase in the land, there should be no tax to pay where the land has clearly decreased in value since the seller originally purchased it. The full Judgment in Spanish can be accessed here:
Needless to say, many properties have been sold at a loss throughout Spain since the economic crisis took hold in 2008. Under the ruling, affected owners can now make a claim against their Town Hall for a refund of the tax due where they sold a property for less than they bought it for. However, as the period for claiming or challenging tax calculations is 4 years from the date when the tax was payable, claims can only be made retrospectively up to 4 years ago, which at the time of the ruling, limited such claims to taxes paid in or after June 2013.
At the time of writing, most Town Halls were perhaps unsurprisingly dragging their heels in implementing the change and most still appear to be issuing tax bills where properties have clearly sold for a loss. In response, the government is anticipated to publish a decree clarifying the position. In the meantime, sellers should continue to request a Plus Valia calculation as normal, but then where the property has sold for a loss, they have every right to refuse to pay the assessed figure. Instead, they should challenge the calculation in writing through their lawyer or accountant and then wait for a response.
It is anticipated that some Town Halls will try to discourage or slow down the said challenges by insisting on evidence in support of the property devaluation, perhaps by demanding a costly expert’s valuation. On a strict legal analysis, disclosure of the sale escritura (title deed of sale) should be sufficient legal evidence in the first instance. However, it is fairly predictable that the Town Halls will seek to complicate or discourage claims wherever possible.